Roundup® highly lethal to amphibians
finds University of
April 3, 2005
From Medical News Today (www.medicalnewstoday.com/medicalnews.php?newsid=22159)
The herbicide Roundup® is widely used to eradicate weeds. But a study published
today by a University of Pittsburgh researcher finds that the chemical may be
eradicating much more than that.
Pitt assistant professor of biology Rick Relyea found that Roundup®, the
second most commonly applied herbicide in the United States, is "extremely
lethal" to amphibians. This field experiment is one of the most extensive
studies on the effects of pesticides on nontarget organisms in a natural
setting, and the results may provide a key link to global amphibian declines.
In a paper titled "The Impact of Insecticides and Herbicides on the
Biodiversity and Productivity of Aquatic Communities," published in the journal
Ecological Applications, Relyea examined how a pond's entire community--25
species, including crustaceans, insects, snails, and tadpoles--responded to the
addition of the manufacturers' recommended doses of two insecticides--Sevin® (carbaryl)
and malathion--and two herbicides--Roundup® (glyphosate) and 2,4-D.
Relyea found that Roundup® caused a 70 percent decline in amphibian
biodiversity and an 86 percent decline in the total mass of tadpoles. Leopard
frog tadpoles and gray tree frog tadpoles were completely eliminated and wood
frog tadpoles and toad tadpoles were nearly eliminated. One species of frog,
spring peepers, was unaffected.
"The most shocking insight coming out of this was that Roundup®, something
designed to kill plants, was extremely lethal to amphibians," said Relyea, who
conducted the research at Pitt's Pymatuning Laboratory of Ecology. "We added
Roundup®, and the next day we looked in the tanks and there were dead tadpoles
all over the bottom."
Relyea initially conducted the experiment to see whether the Roundup® would
have an indirect effect on the frogs by killing their food source, the algae.
However, he found that Roundup®, although an herbicide, actually increased the
amount of algae in the pond because it killed most of the frogs.
"It's like killing all the cows in a field and seeing that the field has more
grass in it--not because you made the grass grow better, but because you killed
everything that eats grass," he said.
Previous research had found that the lethal ingredient in Roundup® was not
the herbicide itself, glyphosate, but rather the surfactant, or detergent, that
allows the herbicide to penetrate the waxy surfaces of plants. In Roundup®, that
surfactant is a chemical called polyethoxylated tallowamine. Other herbicides
have less dangerous surfactants: For example, Relyea's study found that 2,4-D
had no effect on tadpoles.
"We've repeated the experiment, so we're confident that this is, in fact, a
repeatable result that we see," said Relyea. "It's fair to say that nobody would
have guessed Roundup® was going to be so lethal to amphibians."